Lesson 3. Metals and Alloys
People know metals, but all cann´t class its properties. Also they can understand what an alloy is, but why does industry use alloys? All metal have the same properties? No, every metal is different to another and its properties can be the same. That is the reason because of we study metal´s characteristics, extraction, properties, alloys, and use. Now we can introduce us in metal´s world.

These are some links to web we use to look for information about lesson´s items:

Also, below this text, there are many exercises about ferrous and non-ferrous metals, its properties and worksheet about them.
Resumen en Castellano del Tema 3. Los Metales Férricos y no Férricos.


Ferrous Metals
The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in prehistory, most likely with the use of iron from meteorites. The smelting of iron in bloomeries began in the 12th century BC in India, Anatolia or the Caucasus. Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appeared in Sub-Saharan Africa by 1200 BC.[1] The use of cast iron was known in the 1st millennium BC. During the medieval period, means were found in Europe of producing wrought iron from cast iron (in this context known as pig iron) using finery forges. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel.
Steel (with a smaller carbon content than pig iron but more than wrought iron) was first produced in antiquity. New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of iron in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century AD. In the Industrial Revolution, new methods of producing bar iron without charcoal were devised and these were later applied to produce steel. In the late 1850s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, involving blowing air through molten pig iron, to produce mild steel. This and other 19th century and later processes have led to wrought iron no longer being produced.

Metals and Alloys
Activities for Metals and Alloys.
Iron and Ferrous Metals
Activities for Iron and ferrous metals.
Processes Steel
Activities for processes steel.
Non-Ferrous Metals
The most important non-ferrous metals are copper and aluminium.
Copper (pronounced /ˈkɒpɚ/) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with excellent electrical conductivity. Copper is rather supple in its pure state and has a pinkish luster which is (beside gold) unusual for metals, which are normally silvery white. It is used as a heat conductor, an electrical conductor, as a building material and as a constituent of various metal alloys.
Copper is an essential trace nutrient to all high plants and animals. In animals, including humans, it is found primarily in the bloodstream, as a co-factor in various enzymes and in copper-based pigments. However, in sufficient amounts, copper can be poisonous and even fatal to organisms.
Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for thousands of years. Evidence has been preserved from several early civilizations of the use of copper. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum.
A number of countries, such as Chile and the United States, still have sizable reserves of the metal which are extracted through large open pit mines. However, like tin, there may be insufficient reserves to sustain current rates of consumption.[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper#cite_note-0|]]] High demand relative to supply caused a price spike in the 2000s.[2[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper#cite_note-1|]]]
Copper has a significant presence in decorative art. It can also be used as an anti-germ surface that can add to the anti-bacterial and antimicrobial features of buildings such as hospitals.[
Copper

Worksheet for Copper.

Aluminium (ˌæljʊˈmɪniəm(help·info), /ˌæljəˈmɪniəm/) or aluminum (/əˈluːmɪnəm/(help·info), see spelling below) is a silvery white and ductile member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al; its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, and the third most abundant element therein, after oxygen and silicon. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. Aluminium is too reactive chemically to occur in nature as the free metal. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[1] The chief source of aluminium is bauxite ore.
Aluminium is remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion (due to the phenomenon of passivation) and its low density. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building. Its reactive nature makes it useful as a catalyst or additive in chemical mixtures, including being used in ammonium nitrate explosives to enhance blast power.

Aluminium
Worksheet for Aluminium.

Activities for lesson 3.